Tigers – A Symbol of Royalty
They are the symbols of royalty, strength and wonder and are the national animals of India. We are definitely talking about the tigers. Presently they are available under the category of endangered animals as they need been hunted by the humans on large scale for their astounding skin which fetches higher sum and their claws and teeth are the things of decoration.
Mass killing of their stunning animal has declined its population there to extent that they’re on the verge of extinction. Many wild life reserves, national parks are there everywhere the planet to save lots of this elegant animal from extinction.
The scientific name of tiger is Panthera tigris and it belongs to the Chordata and sophistication Mammalia. The Carnivora and therefore the Felidae form the entire address of tiger. Tiger is that the native of southern and eastern Asia and is an apex predator and obligate carnivorous animal. the typical body size of an adult tiger is 3.3 m and its weight could also be 300 kg. Tigers are often easily identified by the presence of dark vertical stripes over the orange white fur and lighter under parts.
The subspecies that comprises the most important population of the tiger is that the Bengal tiger and therefore the largest subspecies of tiger is that the Siberian tiger. they’re alright adapted to their habitats and may be found easily available within the Siberian taiga, open grasslands and therefore the mangrove swamps. They create their own territories and like to live solitary and hunt on an outsized sort of animals for getting their food. When their prey becomes scarce they are doing not hesitate to attack humans also. Out of the nine subspecies of the modern tigers three are completely extinct and therefore the remaining six share the category of endangered animals. Hunting and fragmentation are the main causes of their population reduction. Tigers form the worlds popular and charismatic mega fauna.
The word tiger has been originated from the Greek word tiger is which suggests arrow and it refers to the speed of this animal.
Tigers were distributed within the Asia from the Caucasus and therefore the Caspian to Siberia and Indonesia within the past. During the 19th century these animals became extinct from the western Asia and have become confined to small pocket of the adjoining areas.
Presently the sole island that’s providing shelter to the most important number of tigers is Sumatra. The population of tigers is additionally present in India, China and therefore the Southeast Asia . Borneo is legendary for housing the fossils of tigers only. Tigers like better to sleep in those areas where enough green cover, many prey and water resources are available. Bengal tigers have a good habitat range.
They dwell in wet, evergreen, semi evergreen forests of Assam, mangrove forests of Ganges Delta, deciduous forests of Nepal and therefore the thorn forests of the Western Ghats. they’re good swimmers and enjoy playing with cold water and may swim up to 4 miles continuously.
Tigers are believed to possess evolved from a tiger-like a cat Panthera palaeosinensis whose remains are found in China and Java. it’s believed that these cats were present two million years ago within the Pleistocene and were smaller than the modern tigers.
The earliest fossils of true tigers are believed to be 1.6 and 1.8 million years old. The tigers are most beautiful among all the members of the cat family. they need rusty-reddish to brown-rusty fur coats with a white ventral area and a tinge of white that encircles the face and stripes of black or dark brown over the rusty reddish coat. the amount of stripes differs consistently with the subspecies but every tiger on a mean has about a hundred stripes.
The pattern of the stripe is characteristic of every tiger subspecies and it’s used for the identification of the subspecies. The striped body acts as a weapon of camouflage and helps the tiger to stay unseen within the vicinity of the prey and helps in getting the prey easily with less effort.
The tigers bear a white spot at the rear of their ears called ocelli which acts as a social symbol and is found altogether the large cats. the opposite demarcated characters of tigers include strongly built legs and shoulders a bit like that of the lions which help them to grab and pull the prey heavier and larger than their own bodies.
The body size and therefore the weight differs consistently with the species. The tigresses are always smaller than the males and therefore the males are generally 1.7 times larger in size as compared to the females. This distinction is found in every subspecies of the tigers. The skull of the tiger resembles closely thereupon of the lion with certain differences which includes a longer postorbital region.
At the present there are nine subspecies of tigers which are recognized out which three are totally extinct. These contain the Bengal or the Royal tiger, Indochinese tiger, Malayan tiger, Sumatran tiger, Siberian tiger, South China tiger.
These are the species of tigers which are present today and are searching means to extend in numbers like the one that occurred within the past. In 1977 the govt of China passed a law to ban the mass killing of this royal animal but it had been too late and few subspecies had already faced extinction.
The extinct subspecies of tigers include the Bali tiger, Javan tiger and therefore the Caspian tiger. The hybridization of tigers was started within the 19th century when the lions and tigers were crossed and therefore the resulting offspring got the names ligers and tigons. This practice was first tried within the zoos and is under strict control of the govt of China. Liger is that the results of cross between male lion and therefore the tigress and tigon is that the results of cross between male tiger and feminine lioness.
White tiger is the outcome of well-known gene mutation termed as chinchilla albinistic.
The white tigers are literally rare within the wild and are bred within the zoos due to their popularity. Breeding of the white tigers can also be liable for inbreeding. The white tiger is really not a subspecies but a results of colour variation particularly within the Bengal tigers and just one white tiger occurs in every 10,000 live births. The gene carrying such sort of mutation may be a gene and is carried either by any of the 2 parents. Another sort of gene mutation is liable for the birth of golden tabby tigers which have light golden fur, straw legs and really faint orange stripes. The population of the golden tabby tigers is only 30.
Tigers are literally solitary animals but have well marked territories. The range of their territories depends upon the supply of prey and access on females. The territory of the tigress may range up to twenty square kilometers but males have larger territories which can extend up to 60-100 square kilometers. When a young tigress makes her territory it chooses an area close to her mother’s territory while young males favour to make their territories in areas devoid of any other male.
The males are very violent and sometimes fight for females. Terrible violent fights occur between the males especially when the feminine is in estrous and therefore the death of the weaker opponent can also end in such fight. Tigers mark their territories by spraying of urine, secretion of anal gland, scat also. They also roar to defend their territories.
Tigers generally feed on large and medium sized animals which include the chital, gaur, sambar, deer, boar and buffalo. Sometimes they also hunt leopards, pythons for getting their food.
The old or the wounded tigers which are unable to hunt often feed on humans just like the tigers of Sunderbans in India are man eaters.
Tigers also prey on vegetation for getting their dietary fiber and therefore the fiber of match tree is very favoured. Tigers like better to hunt in the dark either alone or in groups and run at a speed of 49-65 kilometers per hour. Out of twenty hunts just one end in killing of the prey. When hunting on larger animals they have a tendency to grab the throat with the assistance of fore-limbs and therefore the prey dies due to strangulation.
While preying on smaller animals they bite at the nape, break the medulla spinalis or often pierce the spinal cord.
Mating in tigers can occur throughout the tear but the foremost preferred months are November and April. The females are receptive just for short duration and within this duration the mating must happen . A mating pair copulates very frequently and noisily like other cats and gestation is of 16 weeks. the amount of offspring produced could also be 3-4 and every weighing 1 kg, blind and helpless. The tigress takes part in caring of the young ones and therefore the father takes no part in parental care. After five months the tigress will again give birth to a different set of litters if the previous ones are going to be lost.
The young ones after 8 weeks begin of the den and are able to follow their mother. there’s one dominant cub of either sex within the litter. The cubs remain with their mother until they’re two and a half years old. The females reach maturity at the age of 3-4 years and therefore the males at the age of 4-5 years. During her complete lifetime the feminine gives birth to equal number of male and feminine cubs.
The mass killing of tigers for fur and destruction of their natural habitat are liable for the decline of the population of tigers. consistent with report that at the start of 20th century the entire 100,000 population of tigers got reduced to only 2,000 within the wild.
India is believed to deal with world’s largest population of tigers. consistent with a report of World Wildlife Fund out of three ,500 tigers within the world 1,400 are found in India. a serious project entitled Project Tiger was started in 1973 with the efforts of Gandhi to save lots of this royal animal and is running successfully till present.
Many national parks have already been established in India for conservation of tigers. Not only in India but everywhere the planet measures are being taken to save lots of this beautiful animal from extinction.
Tigers are the symbol of strength and are the source of terror. Yet they appear dangerous but make our jungles beautiful. Come, let’s save our tigers from extinction.